Failures of Awareness: The Case of Inattentional Blindness, 11. Social Cognition, 23, 11–34. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 6, 313–138. A picture is worth a thousand lies. (2002). Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 181–197. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (2007). Bernstein, D. M., & Loftus, E. F., (2009a). However, Christianson & Hubinette (1993) studied the recall of witnesses to real bank robberies, finding contradictory evidence, in that increased arousal led to improvements in the accuracy of recall, suggesting that anxiety-creating situations dont always divert attention from important features of a situation. Brewer, W. F., & Treyens, J. C. (1981). Access to memories would be barred, so as to protect individuals from the emotional distress they would cause. Their accuracy for items they had not previously discussed with their co-witness was 79%. Individual differences in imagination inflation. Some of these recommendations are aimed at specific legal procedures, including when and how witnesses should be interviewed, and how lineups should be constructed and conducted. In R. C. L. Lindsay, D. F. Ross, J. D. Read, & M. P. Toglia (Eds. Memory is also susceptible to a wide variety of other biases and errors. People can even come to remember whole events that never occurred. Some memory errors are so “large” that they almost belong in a class of their own: false memories. Loftus, E. F., & Pickrell, J. E. (1995). 68 per cent of true incidents were recalled and 29 per cent of the false ones, with details and clarity of false memories being lower than for true ones. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 207–230. 257–281). False memories about food can lead to food avoidance. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 149–163. Mistakes in identifying perpetrators can be influenced by a number of factors including poor viewing conditions, too little time to view the perpetrator, or too much delay from time of witnessing to identification. How true to life do you think television shows such as CSI or Law & Order are in their portrayals of eyewitnesses? Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases by Cara Laney and Elizabeth F. Loftus is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Effects of exposure time and cognitive operations on facial identification accuracy: A meta-analysis of two variables associated with initial memory strength. Memory, 16, 500–516. [Photo: Sigfrid Lundberg]. Because many aspects of our everyday lives are full of redundancies, our memory systems take advantage of the recurring patterns by forming and using schemata, or memory templates (Alba & Hasher, 1983; Brewer & Treyens, 1981). Standards for evaluating the fairness of photographic lineups. In early false memory studies, undergraduate subjects’ family members were recruited to provide events from the students’ lives. Evaluation of Research Into Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitness testimony investigates the accuracy of memory following a crime or an incident worth interrogating and the types of errors made in such situations.

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